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Talking about Learning Guqin

在我学弹古琴之第一课,王海燕老师印下这篇文章给我,至今仍觉受用无穷。
孔子从弹琴中得其曲、得其数、得其意、得其人、得其类的过程,领略琴与人相通的感应讯息。当琴曲不断的温习弹奏,可以体会琴中无限的想像空间,心琴合一,得心应手。

《韩诗外传》
孔子学鼓琴于师襄子而不进,师襄子曰:“夫子可以进矣。”
孔子曰:“丘已得其曲矣,未得其数也。”
有间,曰:“夫子可以进矣。”
曰:“丘已得其数矣,未得其意也。”
有间,复曰:“夫子可以进矣。”
孔子曰:“丘已得其意矣,未得其人也。”
有间,复曰:“夫子可以进矣。”
孔子曰:“丘已得其人矣,未得其类也。”
有间,曰:“邈然远望,洋洋乎,翼翼乎,必作此乐也!黯然而黑,几然而长,以王天下,以朝诸侯者,其惟文王乎!”
师襄子避席再拜,曰:“善!师以为文王之操也。”
故孔子持文王之声知文王之为人。
{翻译}
孔子跟师襄学弹琴,学了一段时间,仍不肯进而学弹其他新曲。师襄子说:“先生可以学弹其他新曲了。”
孔子说:“我刚学会这首琴曲的曲调,还没有理解它的结构。”
过了一段时间,师襄子又说:“先生可以学弹别的琴曲了。“
孔子说:“我已经理解这首琴曲的结构了,但还没有领会它的意蕴。”
过了一段时间,师襄子又说:“先生可以学弹其他的琴曲了。”
孔子说:“我已经领会这首琴曲的意蕴,但还没有了解作者的为人。”
过了一段时间,师襄子又说:“先生可以学弹别的琴曲了。”
孔子说:“我已经了解作者的为人,但还没有把握作者的形貌。”
又过了一段时间,孔子说:“通过乐曲,我彷佛远远望见乐曲的作者,他心胸宽宏,谋虑深远,只有这样的人才能作出这样的乐曲!他皮肤黝黑,身材高大,称王天下,接见诸侯,这个人只能是文王吧!”
师襄子离席座再拜,说:“说得好!我的老师也认为这是文王所作之琴曲。”
所以说孔子凭藉文王所作的乐曲了解文王的为人。

 

Notes on the QIN Music

琴歌篇 Guqin & Vocal

《仙翁操》Xien Weng Cao(Fairy old man)

Fairy old man.

someone had attained enlightenment

and become a fairy old man

Chen Tuan fairy old man

Chen xi-yi had attained enlightenment and become a fairy old man

The first guqin music when you learning guqin.

学弹古琴的第一首入门曲目。右手勾挑练习与左手大拇指、无名指八度绰音应合指法的练习。琴曲配歌词弹唱,歌词如下:“仙翁仙翁,得道仙翁,得道翁,陈搏仙翁,得道仙翁,陈搏得道仙翁,陈希夷得道的那仙翁,陈搏仙翁,陈搏得道仙翁。仙翁仙翁,得道仙翁,陈搏得道仙翁。陈希夷得道的那仙翁,陈搏仙翁,陈搏得道仙翁。仙翁仙翁,仙翁仙翁,仙翁仙翁,仙翁仙翁,仙翁。”陈搏字希夷,长命百岁,据传著有《紫微斗数》。黄钟调弹奏。吴宗汉先生传谱,王海燕老师传授。怡兰琴斋陈钦怡老师教授。

 

《湘江怨》Xiang Jiang Yuan (Sorrow over River Xiang)

This version is from the private collection of the Lu family of the M in school of playing.Originally titled Xiangfei Yuan (Lament of Lady Xiang).

闽卢氏本汪君振华所藏,《研易习琴斋》谱。全曲有大篇幅的泛音弹奏,是练习泛音的合适入门曲目。琴歌。歌词如下:“落花落叶落纷纷,尽日思君不见君,肠欲断兮肠欲断,泪珠痕上更添痕,一片白云青山内,一片白云青山外。青山内外有白云,白云飞去青山在。我有一般心意无人与我对君说。轻风吹散云,诉与天边月,携琴上高楼,楼高月华满,相思一曲弹未终,泪珠滴那冰弦断。人道湘江深,未抵相思半,海深终有底,那相思呀是无边岸。君在湘江头,妾在湘江尾,相思不相见,泪滴湘江水。梦魂飞不到,所恨唯一死,入我相思门,知我相思苦,长相思兮长相思,短相思兮无穷极。早知这等挂人心,悔不当初莫相识。湘江湘水碧沈沈,未抵相思不见君,自从梦中相见後,令人不觉自伤心”。黄钟调弹奏。 王海燕老师传授。怡兰琴斋陈钦怡老师教授。

《秋风词》Qiou Feng Ci (Autumn wind song)

Fresh autumn breeze 秋风清,

bright autumn moon 秋月明,

falling leaves collect and scatter 落叶聚还散,

winter ravens roost then flutter 寒鸦栖复惊,

when, my love will we meet again? 相亲相见知何日,

now, tonight I feel only sorrow. 此时此夜难为情,

just enter my love's gate 入我相思门,

you'll know my lovesickness 知我相思苦,

long loves are long in memory 长相思兮长相忆,

but brief loves go on forever 短相思兮无尽极,

had I know hearts thus are fettered 早知如此绊人心,

perhaps we never would have met 何如当初莫相识。

The Mei-an ch'in-pu's attribution of "Qiou feng ci" to the great T'ang dynasty poet,Li Pai (A.D.699-762).

琴歌。李白作。右手拨剌指法及左手撞、猱、吟、绰注、进复等指法练习。歌词如下:“秋风清,秋月明,落叶聚还散,寒鸦栖复惊,相亲相见知何日,此时此夜难为情,入我相思门,知我相思苦,长相思兮长相忆,短相思兮无尽极,早知如此绊人心,何如当初莫相识。”《梅庵琴谱》曲後解说:虽为短曲,而回环往复,意短情长。按散相应之处甚多,初学入门,颇易於领会。而熟弹之後,亦不以短小而忽之。月白风清之际,一弹再鼓,动无穷之幽趣焉。“吴宗汉先生传谱,王海燕老师传授。怡兰琴斋陈钦怡老师教授。本曲可用林钟调弹也可借黄钟调弹奏。

 

《慨古吟》Gai Gu Yin (Art of Ancient Age)

Emerging and sinking,

Appearing and disappearing

These wars,Kings,heroes,beauties and fires

are all swallowed in this grand river.

Why bother? The bright moon comes and goes

and always remains in the sky.

Why my melancholy ?

The endless flowers come and go and always remain before my eyes.

The sky will be desolate and the earth old,

And Lives come and go.

Why the remorse?

Why my laments?

琴歌。右手勾剔、撮指法及左手撞、罨、吟、绰注、淌等指法练习。歌词如下:第一段“今古悠悠,今古悠悠,世事浮沤,英雄一去不回头,夕阳西下,江水东流。第二段“山岳啊那荒丘山岳啊荒丘,世远人何在,空过了花开,叹不尽秦国那劫灰,吴越楼台日月如梭,水流花开,世远人何在,明月照去照来,慨当年龙争虎斗,半生事业皆成空。”第三段“六朝事事皆空过,汉家萧鼓,魏晋山河,天荒地老。“此曲虽短小,却有淳古之韵味。胡莹堂先生传谱,容天圻老师传授。怡兰琴斋陈钦怡老师教授。本曲用正调弹奏。

《关山月》Guan Shan Yue(Moon over the Mountain at the Frontier)

bright moon over T'ien-Shan 明月出天山,

vast expanse ocean of clouds 苍茫云海间。

great wind from faroff lands 长风几万里

blows through Yu-men Pass 吹度玉门关。

Han march down Pai-teng 汉下白登道,

Hu reconnoitre Ch'ing-hai bay 胡窥青海湾。

returning from places of battle 由来征战地,

no-one yet has been seen 不见有人还。

frontier guardians watch borders sadly 戌客望边色,

homeward thoughts many bitter faces 思啼多苦颜。

in boudoirs on this night 高楼当此夜,

only sighing and no rest 叹息未应闲。

The earliest extant notation is from Longyinguan Qinpu (1799);this version from Mei'an Qinpu(1931).The tune is possibly adapted from a Shandong folksong. It has disseminated widely since the publication of Mei'an Qinpu.The music scholar Yang Yinliu was reponsible for matching the tune to Li Bai's poem of the same name, which expresses the warrior's longing to return to his home.

此曲最早收录於清代《龙吟馆琴谱》,是诸城梅庵派独有之琴曲。右手勾踢、轮指、拨剌、撮音、泛音及左手虚掩、抓起、掐起、虚上、进复、撞猱等指法练习。《梅庵琴谱》曲後解说:“本曲惟诸成琴宗有之,北地风光,音韵刚健。曲虽短小,而指法纯正 。乃入门之正路,初学易於熟习。且可作玉环体,首尾相接,如环无端,久弹不厌,对初学尤宜。原曲无词,杨荫浏先生尝试为此曲配上李白同名古诗词《关山月》“明月出天山,苍茫云海间。长风几万里,吹度玉门关。汉下白登道,胡窥青海湾。由来征战地,不见有人还。戌客望边色,思啼多苦颜。高楼当此夜,叹息未应闲。” 黄钟调。 吴宗汉先生传谱,王海燕老师传授。怡兰琴斋陈钦怡老师教授。

 

《阳关三叠》Yang Guan San Die(Parting at the Yangguan)

Morning rain has settled the dust in Weicheng 渭城朝雨 清尘,

Willows are green before the tavern 客舍青青柳色新,

Let's empty one cup more 劝君更进一杯酒,

Who goes west through Yang-Pass has no friends 西出阳关无故人.

The famous Tang Dynasty poem of parting by Wang Wei has been very popular.This poem was adopted in this piece and repeated three times.The uneasy and complex feelings of parting were thoroughly expresses.

琴歌。右手勾剔、撮指法及左手泛音、撞、罨、吟、绰注等指法练习。歌词如下:一叠“清和节当春,渭城朝雨 清尘,客舍青青柳色新,劝君更进一杯酒,西出阳关无故人,霜夜与霜晨,遄行遄行,长途越度关泾,惆怅役此身,历苦辛历苦辛,历历苦辛宜自珍宜自珍。二叠“渭城朝雨 清尘,客舍青青柳色新,劝君更进一杯酒,西出阳关无故人,依依顾恋不忍离,泪滴沾巾无复相辅仁,感怀感怀,思君十二时辰,商参各一垠,谁相因谁相因,谁可相因日驰神日驰神。三叠“渭城朝雨 清尘,客舍青青柳色新,劝君更进一杯酒,西出阳关无故人,芳草遍如茵,旨酒旨酒,未饮心已先醇,载驰 载驰 ,何日言旋轩鳞,能酌几多巡,千巡有尽寸衷难泯,无穷的伤感,楚天湘水隔远滨,期早托鸿鳞,尺素申尺素申,尺素频申如相亲。缓收结“噫,从今一别两地相思入梦频,闻燕来宾。吴宗汉先生传谱,王海燕老师传授。怡兰琴斋陈钦怡老师教授。本曲用仲 调弹奏。


《极乐吟》Ji lo Yin(Song of unlimited joy)

Old fisherman night camped beside West Cliff 渔翁夜傍西岩宿,

dawn drew clear Hsiang water lit bamboo fire 晓汲清湘燃楚竹。

sunup mist dispersing no one there 烟消日出不见人,

just one sound: oars creaking green mountains,唉乃一声山水绿。

streams turn and look from heaven's edge a waterfall 回看天际下中流,

above cliff carefree clouds chase each other 岩上无心云相逐。

 

The text of "Ji lo yin" is a well-know poem,"Yu weng "[old fisherman],written about A.D.809 by the T'ang dynasty poet, scholar,and official,Liu Tsung-yuan(773-819)

柳宗元作。琴歌,曲虽短小,但韵味脱俗潇洒。第一次转调练习,左手抓合、带起、如一等指法练习。歌词如下:“渔翁夜傍西岩宿,晓汲清湘燃楚竹。烟消日出不见人,唉乃一声山水绿。回看天际下中流,岩上无心云相逐。《梅庵琴谱》曲後解说:“本曲寥寥数句,而音节刚劲,风格甚高,恰如子厚文气不同凡响。峰回路转,别有天地於此曲见之。”仲吕调羽音。 吴宗汉先生传谱,王海燕老师传授。怡兰琴斋陈钦怡老师教授。


《凤求凰》Feng Qiou huang(
The Phoenix Searches for Its Mate)

So lovely she is 有美人兮,

once seen not forgotten 见之不忘。

one day without her 一日不见兮,

my mind goes wild 思之如狂。

the phoenix,wheeling,soaring in flight searches the wide world for its mate 凤飞翱翔兮,四海求凰。

only that beautiful girl is not at the east wall 无奈佳人兮,不在东墙。

instead of talking, I take the ch'in to unburden my soul 将琴代语兮,聊写衷肠。

let us be united walk together hand in hand 愿言配德兮,携手相将。

let us one day be betrothed console my doubts 何时见许兮,慰我彷徨。

not being able to fly with you will cause my ruin 不得于飞兮,使我沦亡,使我沦亡。

 

Ssu-ma Hsiang-lu(B.C.179-117),a poet and scholar of Han dynasty.

司马相如作。琴歌。第二次转调练习,左手跪指、分开、弦外等指法练习。歌词如下:“有美人兮,见之不忘。一日不见兮,思之如狂。凤飞翱翔兮,四海求凰。无奈佳人兮,不在东墙。将琴代语兮,聊写衷肠。愿言配德兮,携手相将。何时见许兮,慰我彷徨。不得于飞兮,使我沦亡,使我沦亡。《梅庵琴谱》曲後解说:“此曲富有爱慕之忱,绝不同於一般庸俗化男女相悦之情调。恰如相如与文君之两心相契,所以能打破封建枷锁,传为千古美谈,久弹自能体会其用情之深及用情之挚,而无间古今。”林钟调。 吴宗汉先生传谱,王海燕老师传授。怡兰琴斋陈钦怡老师教授.

 

《归去来辞》Guei Qu Lai Ci;Home coming(Returning Home after Resignation)

I am coming home 归去来兮,

the farm and garden are becoming desolate.田园将芜胡不归

So why don't I come back home?既自以心为形役,奚惆怅而独悲,

for such a long time I had my heart prisoned in secular complexity,

so why could I say when I suffered from sad loneliness.

I am grateful it is not too late to change,悟以往之不谏,知来者之可追,

knowing yesterday's wrong and today's right,识迷途之未远,觉今是而昨非,

and there is a tomorrow to pursuit.

the boat drifted,the wind blew in and out of my clothes.舟摇摇以轻 ,风飘飘而吹衣。

I ran with joy when the servants welcomes me,

while my children waited by the door

why did I come home with children in my arms,

the pines and chrysanthemum to be taken cared of?

I am coming home

the clouds carelessly floated out the valley,

but the birds return when tired of flying

yes,I am finally home.

From the famous essay with a similar title by the poet Tao Yuan-ming(365-427CE),this piece expresses the mixed feelings of an officer returning to homeland after dissociating himself from a corrupted bureaucracy.

琴歌。右手勾剔、撮指法及左手撞、罨、吟、绰注、淌等指法练习。歌词如下:第一段“归去来兮,田园将芜胡不归,既自以心为形役,奚惆怅而独悲,悟以往之不谏,知来者之可追,识迷途之未远,觉今是而昨非,舟摇摇以轻 ,风飘飘而吹衣。第二段“问征夫以前路,恨晨光之熹微,乃瞻衡宇,载欣载奔,童仆欢迎,稚子侯门,三径就荒,松菊犹存,携幼入室,有酒盈樽,引胡觞以自酌,眄庭柯以怡颜,倚南窗以寄傲,审容膝之易安。第三段“园日涉以成趣,门虽设而常关,策扶老以流憩,时矫首而遐观,云无心以出岫,鸟倦飞而知还,景翳翳以将入,抚孤松而盘桓第四段“归去来兮,请息交以绝游,世与我而相遗,复驾言兮焉求,悦亲戚之情话,乐琴书以下消忧。”第五段“农人告予以春及,将有事於西畴,或命巾车,或棹孤舟,既窈窕以寻 ,亦崎岖而经邱,木欣欣以向荣,泉涓涓而始流,羡万物之得时,感吾生之行休。第六段“已矣乎,寓形宇内复几时,曷不委心任去留,胡为乎遑遑欲何之,富贵非吾愿,帝乡不可期,怀良辰以孤往,或植杖而耘籽,登东皋以舒啸,临清流而赋诗,聊乘化以归尽,乐夫天命复奚疑“《太古遗音》传谱,容天圻老师传授。怡兰琴斋陈钦怡老师教授。本曲用正调弹奏。

 

 

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